Tuesday, November 18, 2008

Your Calves Are Tight, Bro

Before we begin, let's get a couple of things straight.

1) You cannot stretch your Achilles Tendon. Straight up. It's the strongest tendon in the body and can be loaded to upwards of 15x bodyweight. It doesn't stretch, period. (We can argue the more technical side of apophysis abruption, or speed of tendon loading some other time.) But suffice it to say, your heel cords are like steel cables.

2) Your grandma's crappy runner's stretch that they showed you in Team in Training, physical therapy, or your third grade gym class won't lengthen your calves either.
You know the stretch, where it looks like you are holding up a wall with your leg extended behind you. You may feel your calf go on tension, but no muscle lengthening is occurring, trust me.

3) Three muscles attach into that common heel tendon; the soleus, plantaris, and gastrocnemius. The gastroc and plantaris both cross the knee and the ankle, but you can forget about the plantaris from here on out.

4) A little 20 second loading (can't even call what most people do to their calves stretching) isn't going to change anything in the back of your leg. Your calves are double under, split jerking, box-jumping, fore-foot striking while running machines.
You really think some pinche load is going to change the length of those freaky strong bastards? NO.

5) You've gotta wind up the calves with big loading at end ranges and at peak tension for 5 seconds before releasing that tension and moving further into a bigger stretch for about 10 seconds. This should be repeated for 5-7 cycles. This is known as contract-relax stretching. We should technically call it muscle lengthening. Contract relax stretching is a small piece of a larger theory of movement facilitation called PNF.

6) If you have knee pain, plantar fascia issues, tight hamstrings, are an olympic lifter, runner, rower, or your heels come off the ground when you front squat or overhead squat---STRETCH YOUR CALVES.

7) Muscles are like obedient dogs. They always respond. Always. "I'm just tight" is a BS excuse. Think of stretching as a dog fight. You need some attitude to get the job done. Ps. It's not relaxing or fun. Two to three times a day should do it if your heel cords suck.

8) Hold your breath while you generate that peak force in the muscle. Let it out like a bursting balloon when you go to reclaim more range during the off cycle. The parasympathetic response from your exhale is important.

8) There's more I'm sure but let's get to it.


The Set Up


With shoes on to support your foot, get as much of the ball of your foot up on the wall as you can. Really wind the sucker up. Step back from the wall to make this happen if you need.



Position One

Now while keeping your leg straight, bring your hip to the wall. This position stretches the entire calf but will also bias the gastrocnemius. (remember the gastroc crosses the knee and ankle) Start your PNF cycles now; 5 second peak tension with a held breath, release 10 seconds into new range.



Position Two



Same set up, but bend your knee as you load the calf. The knee bend puts the gastroc on slack and will bias the soleus. Repeat your 5-7 cycles again.

Post experiences to comments.

Coach Kstar

58 comments:

Nick said...

So one question Kelly. Can we do this cold (as in straight out of bed or in the middle of the workday)? Or should we only do this if we done some preparatory movements, and if so, what are those movements?

Anonymous said...

Thanks nick for pointing this out.

Cold no.
Take a shower, then yes.
During the day. Yes.

kstar

Tom said...

Kelly -

Thanks for the advice, this is useful (I check this blog regularly and get lots of good info). I was wondering if there was a good method to do contract-relax stretching for the shoulder, to strengthen the overhead position. Is there anything you'd suggest?

Thanks, love the info.

TOm

Nick said...

Just thought I would throw out this sidenote. I heard (or read) today on the CF boards that Catalyst Athletics, i.e. Greg Everett's brainchild of the performance menu and what not is moving to Sunnyvale!!!

This is an awesome chance for us to visit and get some great training in the olifts when they get up and running. Here is the link to the news.

http://board.crossfit.com/showthread.php?t=39427

Kristy said...

Hi Kelly,
I have a question related to contract-relax stretching. How does it effect sore muscles? Is it safe to stretch them out while sore? Does that help relieve sore, stiff muscles at all? Thank you for the post today. It was really clear and specific. I am going to go give it a try during lunch :)
Best wishes,
Kristy from CFSC

Kelly Starrett said...

Kristy,
Definitely ok for sore muscles.
Get those things going again!
Let us know how it feels on the sore muscles.
You may tolerate less force but the outcome will/should be the same.
Let us know!
kstar

Ross Naughton said...

"You really think some pinche load is going to change the length of those freaky strong bastards?"

Put that on a shirt NOW. Then sell it to me.

How lucky are we to have access to Kelly's knowledge base? One of the things I value most about advice like this is that it helps me to understand the "interconnectedness" (extremely annoying but sometimes inevitable word) of the body's components. For instance, I'm still getting over my shock at the fact, relayed by Kelly, that stretching quads and hamstrings will help reduce knee pain. I'm sure it's quite dumb to be surprised about such things. But I was surprised --- I thought, "The source of knee pain must be, well, right in the knee. Quads and hamstrings are so, uh, far away. What could they have to do with knee pain?" Starting to see the absurdity of this localized, pseudo-understanding of how the body works was something of a revelation, and due in no small part to posts like this one.

Word up.

Kristy said...

Thank you for answering my questions, Kelly! I don't have calf soreness right now, but my hamstrings are still tight from some weekend back squatting, so I will give that contract-relax stretching a try on them to see if it helps. Thanks again!

Anonymous said...

next question: what's the best way to stretch your hams?

Matt said...

I just love the title of this post. "Your calves are tight, bro." It's the kind of thing I would say to another guy when first meeting them to make them feel uncomfortable.

I want THAT on a t-shirt.

John Velandra said...

Kelly,
John here in Fayetteville NC. Do ya'll do trigger point therapy for them as well? How's it been with that?

Thoughts on it?

FilthyBrit said...

Just tried this in the office. Instant relief!

Thanks, Kelly!

Genetic Potential said...

Uhhh, those are sa-weeet pumas bro. Didn't you used to wear, like hiking shoes... big bad meaty dogs w/ inserts? Love the stretchy idea.

BMacK

Dan - CrossFit Sonoma County said...

Kelly -

a) Best blog in the house.
b) Have you noticed certain types of athletes having longer/shorter calves? Am I just convincing myself that many elite gymnasts have "longer" calves, does the sport simply reward/select people with greater inherent calf ROM, or are there sports/exercises that seem to build/promote less "tight" calves?

Not sure that made the most sense, but I tried!

Anonymous said...

Beware of the hairy chicken leg!

Deadly Nedly said...

PNF stretching is awesome. Be aware that there are dangers at the extreme range of motion. I have personally jacked up both of my legs at the hip using this method. Subluxation, dislocation, torn ligaments, I'm not sure. I got better, but it definatley wasn't fun.

It's my theory that the contract-relax-lengthen process works wonders for the muscle tissue, but has zero effect on tendons and ligaments, so at the extreme range of motion, they will of course tear. It's a great method, and I still use it, but with a bit of caution.

Deadly Nedly said...

Dan - I'll take a stab at your b question, as a crossfitter and former gymnast.

I would say that balanced sport in general demands, develops, and rewards flexibility. Elite athletes are undoubtably at a genetic advantage, in addition to hard work. Amature athletes can get to an excellent level without this genetic advantage, but they may never make the olympics. This concept can be applied straight down the 10 aspects of fitness.

Troy Archie said...

I'm sure you thought it was an idiot proof tutorial but here I am:
So "Position One" you hold for 5 seconds with your breath held then you go to "Position Two" for seconds while breathing?

Spicer said...

Hold your breath in position one for five seconds while contracting the calf muscles to push against the wall, then stop contracting and push deeper into the stretch from the same position and hold it. Repeat with position two.

Anonymous said...

I have tried this stretch before, but give up because my foot always slips down the wall. I've tried it with different shoes on different surfaces. What am I doing wrong? Are there any alternative stretches?

Anonymous said...

great advice with the pnf; i'm second guessing myself after reading your article; are you sure the soleus attatches above the knee? i'm fairly certain in origintes just below the knee on the lateral tibia?

Anonymous said...

Anony-
You are right of course. Re-read the post. I'm pretty sure I didn't say the soleus crosses the knee.

Anony above last post.
Place a block or piec of foam up under your foot for support.
If your foot is slipping could also be tight ankle capsule.
Go see a good pt for a little breathing room.

kstar

Shannon F. said...

Hello,

Eric LeClair from Crossfit Monrovia sent me to this, as I have been experiencing Achilles Tendonitis. These exercises felt great!

Is it okay to do these exercises even with tendonitis?

Thanks again!

Anonymous said...

thank fuck for you. thought id never be able to squat ass to grass highbar cause of my shitty ankle mobility .

James said...

How does it effect sore muscles? Is it safe to stretch them out while sore?

Anonymous said...

Just came across this. When doing the gastroc stretch, do the quad muscles need to be tensed or relaxed?

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